Section Nine appropriates the funds to carry out the act. The remainder of the land once allotted to appointed natives was declared surplus and sold to non-native settlers as well as railroad and other large corporations; other sections were converted into federal parks and military compounds. If the family did not succeed at farming, the land reverted back to the federal government for sale, usually to white settlers. The use of competence opens up the categorization, making it much more subjective and thus increasing the exclusionary power of the Secretary of Interior. According to ideals, the men were forced into the fields but the Native Americans thought this made them take on what in their society had traditionally been the woman's role, and the women were relegated to the. Most families would fail, the children would be broken. Question: What was the goal of the Dawes Act? Native Americans ended up with a total of over 155 million acres 630,000 km 2 of land, ranging from arid deserts to prime agricultural land.
In opposition to their white counterparts, they did not see it from an economic standpoint. The Dawes Act was introduced by Congressman Henry Dawes of Massachusetts. Even in the home, the Native woman was dependent on her husband. They were to adopt the values of the dominant society and see land as real estate to be bought and developed; they learned how to use their land effectively in order to become prosperous farmers. Women were no longer the caretakers of the land and they were no longer valued in the public political sphere.
Tribe members also suffered from the breakdown of the social structure of the tribes. March 2015 For nearly one hundred years, the consequences of federal Indian allotments have developed into the problem of fractionation. The Native American Indians who had refused to submit to previous relocations refused to register on the Dawes Rolls for fear that they would be caught and punished. The Dawes Rolls list individuals who chose to enroll and were approved for membership in the Five Civilized Tribes. In the 1920s, the conducted a major study of conditions of the Native American and included data on the impacts of fractionation. To register they had to change their names to an English one. Lands preserved included dry and desert parcels, unable to support farming.
The Dawes Act was enacted on February 8, 1887 regarding the distribution of land to Native Americans in Oklahoma. Custer's Last Stand Score: 5 of 5 5. Congress, aimed at decreasing federal control of affairs and increasing Indian self-government and responsibility. The idea behind that law was that Indian tribes would be broken up and those who chose to leave their tribes would be granted United States citizenship. This completed the extinguishment of tribal land titles in Indian Territory, preparing it to be admitted to the Union as the state of Oklahoma. Every member of the bands or tribes receiving a land allotment is subject to laws of the state or territory in which they reside. The Dawes Act caused great suffering with much of the land winding up in the hands of white settlers.
Much of the best reservation land eventually passed into the hands of whites. Completed in 1928, The Problem of Indian Administration — commonly known as the Meriam Report after the study's director, Lewis Meriam — documented fraud and misappropriation by government agents. The tribe was viewed as a highly cohesive group, led by a hereditary, chosen chief, who exercised power and influence among the members of the tribe by aging traditions. Neither act resulted in more western settlements. In addition, the fractionation of land and the resultant ballooning number of trust accounts quickly produced an administrative nightmare.
Battle of Wounded Knee D. Alaska Natives and American Laws 2nd ed. With such small ownership interests, it is nearly impossible to obtain the level of consent necessary to lease the land. Ultimately, the Army subdued the Indians and forced them onto reservations, where they were allowed to govern themselves and maintain some of their traditions and culture. It says that a Native American family may receive 160 acres 0.
Finally, funds were authorized for the establishment of a program for tribal land purchases, for educational assistance, and for aiding tribal organization. The forced assimilation of Native Americans was thus justified as being better for the Indians themselves. That all lands adapted to agriculture, with or without irrigation so sold or released to the United States by any Indian tribe shall be held by the United States for the sale purpose of securing homes to actual settlers and shall be disposed of by the United States to actual and bona fide settlers only tracts not exceeding one hundred and sixty acres to any one person. The Dawes Act, or General Allotment Act of 1887, was a law that allowed the U. Many white feared them and sought reformation. I think this approach would be desirable in many cases.
Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1991. Section Seven addresses water rights on irrigated land. For example, one provision of the Act was the establishment of a trust fund, administered by the , to collect and distribute revenues from oil, mineral, timber, and grazing leases on Native American lands. Sure, the Mongoloid immigrants got some land back but it is a merefart in comparison. Therefore, the Dawes Act is yet another example of the exploiting nature of the U.
Henry Dawes also believed that the ownership of land played an important part in persuading people to accept the laws of the federal government. National Archives and Records Administration. The Bureau of Indian Affairs failed to manage the process fairly or efficiently. Fractionation has become significantly worse. In the 1880s many government officials felt that the previous reservation policies had not resulted in Native peoples becoming assimilated into larger European American culture.