A proposed course of action is generated 2. Groupthink Explained Groupthink occurs when a group makes faulty or ineffective decisions for the sake of reaching a consensus. Structure discussion methods and alleviate time pressure: By sharing guidelines on methodical decision-making processes and reducing time pressure, leaders can mitigate groupthink antecedent conditions of lack of methodical principals and stress Thompson, 2008. As you pointed out, we are some times very much annoyed due to the downvotes for our remarks. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Better training of leaders in the use of experts could be vital to the decision making process Smith, 2004. This means that high cohesion will lead to groupthink only if one or both of the other antecedents is present, situational context being slightly more likely than structural faults to produce groupthink.
By doing this, members feel pressured to conform to the expressed opinion or decision as opposed to stating their argument against the current decision. The answer to this question does not come from a psychology text but rather is a matter of very simple philosophy. Studies have shown that groups under high stress are more likely to make errors, lose focus of the ultimate goal, and use procedures that members know have not been effective in the past. Those who are not used to speaking out on certain issues may censor themselves because they do not want to rock the boat. I prefer to think that scientists will remain skeptical, but am often disappointed. Group members are committed to their tasks and take pride in the output and achievements of the group.
Or is the hysteria only a symptom of something greater and far more malevolent in American society? Incomplete Analysis Because groupthink often pressures dissenters to toe the line in conforming to majority opinion, important aspects of a situation are often left unquestioned, sometimes with disastrous results. Leadership should continuously encourage team members to think critically and remain unbiased as they think about their comments, suggestions and solutions. Anything that borders or crosses the conventional entities must be encouraged and not looked down upon to promote innovation in an organization. Avoiding Groupthink Unfortunately, everyone is vulnerable to groupthink in one situation or another. There are some very real examples of groupthink that can show how destructive it can be to accept the ideas of a group without questioning. If the purpose is positive and the end result is positive, it is called a positive groupthink while if the outcome is negative, it becomes negative groupthink. Group norms are the explicit and implicit rules that govern the values, actions and behavior of group members.
The Devil's Advocate role is that of a person who takes a position for the sake of fostering argument and conflict and is one of the oldest tools that can be used to mitigate the groupthink bias. Decision-making is tough enough, and it grows in complexity when there are groups involved. Members discount warnings and do not reconsider their assumptions. Manz and Sims 1982 conducted a study showing that autonomous work groups are susceptible to groupthink symptoms in the same manner as decisions making groups within businesses. Cohesive groups increase job satisfaction and reduce stress because they offer social support to team members. Test of Time The theory of Groupthink has withstood the test of time. » If I kept this kind of company my wife would divorce me.
Empirical support for it has also not been consistent. Promote Free Expression Leadership can also help eliminate group-think by promoting an environment that welcomes people to express any doubts they may have and to feel free to express any divergence they may be considering during discussions. Proceedings of the 2003 Association for Business Communication Annual Convention. MacDonald received a law degree from the University of Dundee in 1990 and holds diplomas in personnel management and legal practice. Companies put a great deal of time and effort in to encouraging employees to work effectively with their colleagues. Participants write down all ideas that occur to them, keeping their lists private at this point. There was a recognized downside to group in that it takes groups more time to come to a decision and requires that people make compromises with each other.
Political Psychology, 12 2 , 247-278. It wants you to follow the majority. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16, 143-155. Maybe you feel apprehensive about expressing opposition for fear of looking unsupportive. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. Ahmed Rawda Hassan Dai Rowida A.
The goal of this theory is to recognize the dangers of groupthink in decision-making. Though there is no magic number that may work, by keeping a team lean the leader may encourage its members to speak versus conforming to popular views. In an environment of groupthink, minimizing conflict becomes the primary goal rather than producing concrete results or achieving true consensus. Any additional information relevant to the issues is gathered 5. Leader identifies judgment issue and gives participants procedural instructions. However, there are a lot of things that groups can do to avoid the dreaded effects of groupthink when making important decisions.
Art Petty is a coach, speaker and workshop presenter focusing on helping professionals and organizations learn to survive and thrive in an era of change. Hope is not lost until the final voice falls silent. European Journal of Social Psychology, 31 6 , 707-720. Groupthink thoughtlessness is how millions of people can be convinced that something which is completely immoral is within their right to enforce upon their fellow ma n. Let's just say it was not pretty what happened in this type of situation. Groupthink can also aid in the performance of a new company or organization by placing an emphasis on the familiar and concentrating a coordinated effort toward a single goal.
This leads the group to underestimate its opposition. True Stories of Grit The movie Argo showed one such example of positive groupthink. If you come from a part of the world where your exposure to differing cultures, academic and technical subjects areas is high then chances you are more likely to be in an innovative culture. However, low performance norms can be detrimental to group productivity. The same study indicates that level of group cohesiveness is insignificant in predicting groupthink occurrence. This symptoms leads to excessive optimism and risk tacking.