Many modern philosophers like John Rawls try to argue for justice and ethics without using ontological or theological arguments, but even the forefathers of philosophy like Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle argued for ethics. This branch studies reasoning and argument. Nihilism - is the philosophical doctrine suggesting the negation of one or more putatively meaningful aspects of life. Philosophy of Language: Ancient branch of philosophy which gained prominence in the last century under Wittgenstein. This aspect of philosophy naturally bleeds into epistemology, logic, and reason in terms of what we can know and into theology in terms of the meaning of being.
Metaphysics can broadly contain all the other philosophies but even the Greeks considered ethics, logic, epistemology, and aesthetics separately, and we still do today. Aristotle, Ethics, Immanuel Kant 668 Words 3 Pages Philosophy of Man: Notes Historical Background I. With that in mind the video below does a good job of backing up the point we hopefully just made, that is: there are different logical ways to categorize the philosophies. The major branches of philosophy can be denoted as: metaphysics what is , epistemology what we can know , logic and reason, ethics and morality, and aesthetics beauty and art. If we want to muse on the philosophical nature of Pez dispensers, we are at the very least partaking in Pez philosophy.
Epistemology - This philosophy study concerns human knowledge: what knowledge is, what the conditions are which make human knowledge possible and the extent to which human knowledge can grasp or reach. Logicians explore the structure of arguments that preserve truth or allow the optimal extraction of knowledge from evidence. Do we consider epistemology to fall under logic? Classic works include Plato's Republic, Hobbes' Leviathan, Locke's Two Treatises, and J. The major branches of philosophy can be denoted as: metaphysics what is , epistemology what we can know , logic and reason, ethics and morality, and aesthetics beauty and art. Religion and Spirituality Theology is the study of God and the nature of the Divine.
Ethics is the study of the nature of right and wrong and good and evil, in terms both of considerations about the foundations of morality, and of practical considerations about the fine details of moral conduct. Classic works include Vico's New Science, and Hegel and Marx's works. They reason about such things as whether or not people have free will, in what sense abstract objects can be said to exist, and how it is that brains are able to generate minds. Are they convention or not? These questions are a basic starter for studying the branches of philosophy. Classic works include Vico's New Science, and Hegel and Marx's works. Later, it was misinterpreted by Medieval commentators on the classical texts as that which is above or beyond the physical, and so over time metaphysics has effectively become the study of that which transcends physics. They did not want these powers to be controlled by just one man or one group.
Cosmology and Cosmogony Cosmology is the branch of metaphysics that deals with the world as the totality of all phenomena in space and time. Ethics is the questioning of morals and personal values. We can say logic is the philosophy of mind, while ethics is the philosophy of the heart. C , Empedocles 490 B. In other cases, such as hermeneutics, critical theory, or structuralism, it is held that philosophy investigates a domain that is irreducibly cultural or practical. To this it is sufficient to answer generally that the synthesis of the parts is something more than that detailed knowledge of the parts in separation which is gained by the man of science. Cosmology seeks to understand the origin, evolution, structure, and ultimate fate of the universe at large, as well as the natural laws that keep it in order.
Logic is one of the primary tools philosophers use in their inquiries; the precision of logic helps them to cope with the subtlety of philosophical problems and the often misleading nature of conversational language. Earlier philosophers thought the're might be no possibility to gain any kind of knowledge. Ontological Argument: The writings of Augustine also influenced the subsequent formulation by Saint Anselm of the ontological argument for the existence of God. Psychology - study of nature and functions of the soul, mind or spirit 5. Philosophy 101 For a belief system called Evolutionary Philosophy, it is helpful to have a grounding in the principles of philosophy.
Ethics and politics have to do with action and quality of life. Cosmology - This philosophy study strives to formulate a theory explaining the origin, nature and end of the universe. Although you may not be conscious of it, this set of beliefs, or personal philosophy, informs how you live, work, and interact with others. Plato defined the basics as being, non-being, and change. Philosophy of Politics: Closely related to ethics, this is a study of government and nations, particularly how they came about, what makes good governments, what obligations citizens have towards their government, and so on.
Philosophers asked questions about art and what it means to us and the world around us. Logic has two types: deductive and inductive reasoning. Derived from the Greek word episteme, meaning knowledge or understanding, epistemology refers to the nature and origin of knowledge and truth. Metaphysics - This philosophy study deals with the question concerning ultimate reality and strives to explain it in its most general terms through its first and most universal principle. Axiology Axiology is the branch of philosophy that considers the study of principles and values. Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy which deals with the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
Other notable major-minor branches include the philosophy of language, the philosophy of law, the philosophy of maths, the philosophy of mind, the philosophy of health, etc. Or, for example, we could divide into a two-fold divisions of 1. Problems of Ethics The central questions raised in this course in ethics are : 1 What is the nature of the life of excellence? In the last century, science particularly atomic theory, evolution, computer technology and neuroscience has demonstrated many ways in which mind and brain interact in a physical way, but the exact nature of the relationship is still open to debate. However, the subject is grounded, the task of the logician is the same: to advance an account of valid and fallacious inference to allow one to distinguish. Yellow for logic, green for the physical, blue for metaphysics… these colors are consistent with western element theory and astrology. This may be contrasted with the traditional foundation that views philosophy as a special sort of science, the highest one, which investigates the fundamental reasons and principles of everything.