Finally, the extent to which they experienced various emotions was assessed. Self-discrepancies in clinically anxious and depressed university students. Why are materialists less satisfied? I want to consider how self-discrepancy might relate to our needless task delay. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15, 225—238. I had to read it multiple times to understand only part of it.
When do self-discrepancies have specific relations to emotions? On the self-regulation of behavior. Decisional and behavioral procrastination: How they relate to self-discrepancies. Self-discrepancy: A Theory Relating Self and Affect. Self-presentational tactics included: excuse-making, justification, enhancement, intimidation. Ought Ideal self and ought self act as self guides in which the actual self aspires to be aligned with. In addition, when individuals recognize they cannot fulfill some standard, they are also more attracted to drugs that can alter their state of consciousness, representing another attempt to escape the self. Another Domain of Self In 1999 Charles Carver and associates made a new amendment to the theory by adding the domain of feared self.
Self-Discrepancy theory was the first to improve on these generalizations and assign specific emotions and affects to the disparity. Study 4 uncovered a similar pattern of results in the Czech Republic. The motivational properties of ideal and ought selves basically represent a dichotomy between approach and avoidance, respectively. Decisional and behavioral procrastination: How they relate to self-discrepancies. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 2, 343-355. Individuals may compare themselves to an ideal self-guide, which represents their hopes or wishes.
Self-discrepancies diminished purpose in life. A standpoint on the self is defined as a point of view from which you can be judged that reflects a set of attitudes or values. Escaping the self: The moderating effect of self complexity. Making a good decision: Value from fit. Guilt is an emotional response specific to the own standpoint. Next, participants answered questions that gauge the degree to which they experience a sense of purpose in life. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 101: 87 —95.
It is also well organized, it includes headings, most of the sections are relatively the same size, and they all contain helpful information that contributes to the main idea exposed on the article. The undesired self a neglected variable in personality research. Nevertheless, Tangney, Niedenthal, Covert and Barlow 1998 showed that feelings of shame arise in response to any forms of discrepancy. Explaining differences in societal levels of happiness: Relative standards, need fulfillment, culture and evaluation theory. Another measure that was administered, desire to maintain control, did not moderate this relationship. The motivational properties of these selves are related to the specific emotions that are associated with the discrepancy between the actual self and either the ideal or ought self. Money and happiness: Income and subjective wellbeing across nations.
The second-generation question of Tangney, Niedenthal, Covert, and Barlow 1998. I think it should be shorter and more relevant to the topic so readers can quickly read and understand the topic. Then there is our actual self. It is best to re-write the introductory to further elaborate the meaning of self-discrepancy theory while still addressing it to a general audience, since with the original wording, some people might find it too complex to fully understand. Differences in both the relative magnitude and the accessibility of individu- als' available types of self-discrepancies are predicted to be related to differences in the kinds of discomfort people are likely to experience. Implications of discrepancies According to a variety of theories, discrepancies between the existing traits, status, or possessions of individuals and some standard evokes negative affective states, such as agitation or dejection. Most of the information provided was pulled from one source.
That is, individuals who attended a mindfulness training course, which spanned four weeks, were less inclined to feel their actual and desired financial status diverge from one another. Again, the ideal self-guide is characterized by the absence of positive outcomes, and accompanied by dejection-related emotions. Own Your own personal standpoint. Or they may compare themselves to an ought self-guide, which represents their obligations or responsibilities. Additionally, there is no citation for the information provided in the depression section of the article. First, individuals become aware of a major discrepancy between themselves and the standards they are expected to achieve, manifesting as a sense of failure or disappointment.
Promotion and prevention as a motivational duality: Implications for evaluative processes. It is one's perception of their own attributes intelligence, athleticism, attractiveness, etc. When individuals feel they might not have fulfilled these duties and obligations, they experience an impending sense of punishment, experienced as agitation and anxiety Strauman, 1989. When what one has is enough: Mindfulness, financial desire discrepancy, and subjective well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1105-1117. Specifically, individuals who experience erratic shifts in mood are particularly sensitive to these discrepancies.
These different types of goal orientations are expected to influence the types of goals individuals pursue, as well as the contexts under which they will experience the most successful goal pursuit. All research, particularly in the social sciences, is at best penultimate. Subsequent analyses showed that a reduced sense of agency mediated this relationship. The sorting task was conducted in three phases. This article presents a theory of how different types of discrepancies between self-state representa- tions are related to different kinds of emotional vulnerabilities. Evidence As evidence of self discrepancy theory, Higgins, Shah, and Friedman 1997 , accumulated evidence that vindicates self discrepancy theory. I also realized that some sources were heavily used throughout the article.
The independence of positive and negative affect. The author bases the article mostly on Higgins' theory reference number 4 abusing this resource. Other words related to death, such as coffin. Not only has it been applied to psychological health, but also to other research and understanding to human emotions such as and. Timothy Strauman 1992 applied self discrepancy theory to psychological disorders of emotion. Australian Journal of Psychology, 57, 139-147. Study 2 was similar to Study 1, but was conducted in Switzerland and Cote d'Ivoire.