For example, strict adherence to the law may be rational in the enforcement of criminal law but may be pathological if it denies or delays the relief to the victims of natural calamities. As for example, in liberal democracies pressure groups, political parties and various non-governmental organisations participate, though not in a formal way, in the decision-making activities. But the mere fact is that it has immense importance in the present day structure of administration and relation between authority and public. The economic man or the rational man decides to pursue a particular process which thinks in his judgment rational and which will ensure maximum utility. We can also view the term from another angle. It is generally believed that all these models unnecessarily create confusion in the minds of readers. It is not only a science of society.
The interference of the scientific methods thus seems to be ineluctable. Because he thought that it would contaminate the character and behaviour of the people of China. In the light of the above analysis we may say the public administration is neither public nor administration. Ferrel Heady has given a typology for classifying administrative systems of both developed and developing countries. I hope someday this organization can become real, our youth is our. A single, generic management theory bleeding the borders between the private and the public sector was thought to be possible. Differentiation depends upon technological factors.
Higher the level of differentiation various structures for various functions and integration coexistence of these structures ,higher the development. While pursuing this policy or technique the decision-maker is forced to make compromises and the main aim of compromise is to fulfill the objective of the organisation or management. Decision-Making Theories : New Tendency : Before the end of the 1950s an elaborate idea about decision-making theory was built up by many and among them the most prominent figures, were Richard Snyder, Chester Barnard and Herbert Simon. In the wide area of foreign policy both the states and the individuals are both actors. However, Public Administration is wider than that. A and the National Academy of Administration have prepared about eighty case studies in memography form for their training use. This is the operative aspect or applied side of public administration.
Normally, these two forms of administration do not overlap because the areas are different. Public Administration: An Action Orientation. But this argument does not stand the test of reality. For example, a pathological delay in decision making may be due to over commitment in a Western country and due to under commitment to rationality in under developed countries. Therefore,one can very conveniently understand from the above mentioned,the delicate and crucial relationship between Ecology and Administration. Snyder says that the communication and information network is closely associated with the decision-making process. The policy makers of a communist country will not formulate such a policy as will violate basic principles of communism although rationality demands the violation.
As for instance, there is pollution of different types and their harmfulness is quite known to all. If circumstances demand any change or reconsideration of policy, the decision maker takes steps in that direction. The new model advocated the use of private sector-style models, organizational ideas and values to improve the efficiency and service-orientation of the public sector. Purpose The overall goal of this case study is to place an emphasis on how dependent modern day society is on public administration to handle chaotic or unexpected situations. Many organizational principles originated with the military, a few from private business. In medieval times, the abilities to read and write, add and subtract were as dominated by the educated elite as public employment.
Job specifications and descriptions at various nodes are analysed and some understanding is reached on the basis of elaborateness and degree of specialisation compared in regards to different administrative systems. If the belief or attachment to ideology is pervasive, or firm the decision-maker may temporarily give priority to ideology or belief. If this were the objective of the decision-maker he cannot make policy according to his personal preferences or sweet will. There is another aspect of policy formulation. Any bureaucratic action or behavior may be pathological in one situation and rational in another situation. Herbert Simon believes that public administration has two different aspects or spheres-one is, it is an activity.
This post has been seen 30677 times. Max Weber was a German political economist, social scientist, and renowned Philosopher is an important father to the theory of Public Administration and the bureaucratic side of it. White, Public administration is the direction, coordination and control of many persons to achieve certain purposes. Public programs have been adapted. Mere making of decision is not enough and therefore its implementation. Grants are to be passed by the Diet and then only it is given to the executive. Under this approach structures of organisations are analysed in terms of their horizontal differentiation,vertical differentiation,span of control,etc.
Sometimes, it may be studied from juristic angle that was very popular in western philosophers and was advocated especially by Frank J. It is now realized that these factors conditions and are conditioned by governmental behavior and hence their study is an essential part of study of public administration. The author describes education in the Philippines as poor especially in the areas of science,and History. Administration is seen as one of the most significant aspect of any societal arrangement as it makes possible the achievement of governmental function fulfilment. What is the difference between Public Administration and Public Management 4. Persons with less wage may feel motivated to earn more by illegitimate means. It is also called an ethical dimension.