Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That it shall and may be lawful for the President of the United States to cause so much of any territory belonging to the United States, west of the river Mississippi, not included in any state or organized territory, and to which the Indian title has been extinguished, as he may judge necessary, to be divided into a suitable number of districts, for the reception of such tribes or nations of Indians as may choose to exchange the lands where they now reside, and remove there; and to cause each of said districts to be so described by natural or artificial marks, as to be easily distinguished from every other. And be it further enacted, That if, upon any of the lands now occupied by the Indians, and to be exchanged for, there should be such improvements as add value to the land claimed by any individual or individuals of such tribes or nations, it shall and may be lawful for the President to cause such value to be ascertained by appraisement or otherwise, and to cause such ascertained value to be paid to the person or persons rightfully claiming such improvements. He felt that Indian removal policy was beneficial not only to the white settlers, but also to the Indians. Media Credits The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit. Some managed to avoid removal and stayed behind and eventually gained federal recognition as the Poarch Band of Creek Indians. The Stones River National Cemetery is visible in the background. The Cherokee attempted to hold their land, but due to a series of fraudulent treaties Treaty of New Echota orchestrated by President Jackson, the United States, under the leadership of President Martin Van Buren, committed military forces to remove the nation.
The nation resisted, however, and claimed in court to be a foreign nation that was not subject to laws. The Seminoles declared the Indian Removal Act illegal and refused to accept the terms. However, many white Americans saw this move as a reason for an inhumane and brutal course of action, which resulted in strong protest against the removal. But historians should try to ask more questions of their subjects to tease out the fuller story. And be it further enacted, That upon the making of any such exchange as is contemplated by this act, it shall and may be lawful for the President to cause such aid and assistance to be furnished to the emigrants as may be necessary and proper to enable them to remove to, and settle in, the country for which they may have exchanged; and also, to give them such aid and assistance as may be necessary for their support and subsistence for the first year after their removal.
Congress has two bodies, the House of Representatives and the Senate. They have neither the intelligence, the industry, the moral habits, nor the desire of improvement which are essential to any favorable change in their condition. Text Text on this page is printable and can be used according to our. How long the personal causes which have heretofore retarded that ultimately inevitable measure will continue to operate I am unable to conjecture. An example of a non-violent method was to take up white American customs like Western education, slave-holding, and large-scale farming. Ultimately, those who didn't perish via military conflict were forcibly displaced.
It will separate the Indians from immediate contact with settlements of whites; free them from the power of the States; enable them to pursue happiness in their own way and under their own rude institutions; will retard the progress of decay, which is lessening their numbers, and perhaps cause them gradually, under the protection of the Government and through the influence of good counsels, to cast off their savage habits and become an interesting, civilized, and Christian community. Under the power of federal troops and Georgia state militia, the Cherokee tribe made their trek to the plains across the Mississippi. This land was home to the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chicasaw, Seminole, and Creek nations. The map shows the routes of the five southeastern tribes that were forced to leave their homelands in the Southeast and live in Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma. In fact, Removal outlasted his tenure: the last of the Cherokee were infamously forced on the Trail of Tears death march in 1838, two years after Jackson's second--and final--term ended. For legal advice, please contact your attorney.
In November 1828 Andrew Jackson, who was known to favor Indian removal, was elected President. Removing the Indian tribes from the lands and relocating them would save them from the destruction of whites, and new areas would allow the tribes to govern themselves easily and with peace. The Creeks fought valiantly against the forced removal, but by 1836 the Jackson Administration and the Secretary of War Lewis Cass drove the Creeks across the Mississippi River with military force. A small number of Seminoles managed to hide out in the swamps of south Florida. Not all members of Congress supported the Indian Removal Act.
Doubtless it will be painful to leave the graves of their fathers; but what do they more than our ancestors did or than our children are now doing? Being a British Columbian, living in a Canadian province still struggling with both its Indian affairs legacy and its present relations with its aboriginal inhabitants, what disturbs me most when reading these documents is just how little our language for discussing these issues has changed in 170 years, how subtly and insidiously ingrained the patterns of thought apparent in these messages remain in our present culture. The case for this link to the Civil War has been made at least as far back as Horace Greeley's American Conflict: A History of The Great Rebellion, published in 1864. If accepted by each respective Indian nation, the treaty allowed for their safe removal you will come to see why this is an ambiguous term across the Mississippi River and on to federally protected lands. And be it further enacted, That for the purpose of giving effect to the Provisions of this act, the sum of five hundred thousand dollars is hereby appropriated, to be paid out of any money in the treasury, not otherwise appropriated. The waves of population and civilization are rolling to the westward, and we now propose to acquire the countries occupied by the red men of the South and West by a fair exchange, and, at the expense of the United States, to send them to land where their existence may be prolonged and perhaps made perpetual. By opening the whole territory between Tennessee on the north and Louisiana on the south to the settlement of the whites it will incalculably strengthen the southwestern frontier and render the adjacent States strong enough to repel future invasions without remote aid. And be it further enacted, That if, upon any of the lands now occupied by the Indians, and to be exchanged for, there should be such improvements as add value to the land claimed by any individual or individuals of such tribes or nations, it shall and may be lawful for the President to cause such value to be ascertained by appraisement or otherwise, and to cause such ascertained value to be paid to the person or persons rightfully claiming such improvements.
And upon the payment of such valuation, the improvements so valued and paid for, shall pass to the United States, and possession shall not afterwards be permitted to any of the same tribe. Many European Americans preferred the passage of the 1830 Indian Removal Act, although there was significant opposition to the act as well. Jackson wasted no time in signing the bill into law on May 28, 1830. The Indian Removal Act of 1830 was very strongly supported in the South, where the relevant states were more than eager to gain power to the lands that were inhabited at the time by the Five Civilized Tribes the Choctaw, Seminole, Creek, Cherokee, and Chickasaw. And be it further enacted, That it shall and may be lawful for the President to exchange any or all of such districts, so to be laid off and described, with any tribe or nation of Indians now residing within the limits of any of the states or territories, and with which the United States have existing treaties, for the whole or any part or portion of the territory claimed and occupied by such tribe or nation, within the bounds of any one or more of the states or territories, where the land claimed and occupied by the Indians, is owned by the United States, or the United States are bound to the state within which it lies to extinguish the Indian claim thereto. They resisted the removal and resulted in the Second Seminole War which was from 1835 to 1842.
The1830 Indian Removal Act cleared the way for the hesitant—and often forceful—emigration of tens of thousands of Indians from their homes to the West. Future United States President Abraham Lincoln also strongly opposed the 1830 Indian Removal Act. It is rather a source of joy that our country affords scope where our young population may range unconstrained in body or in mind, developing the power and facilities of man in their highest perfection. Many Indian nations did make land cessions in following years. In 1828, pressure for Indian removal to the west greatly increased after the Cherokee adopted a constitution and a republican form of government modeled on that of the United States and began publishing a bi-lingual newspaper, the Cherokee Phoenix.
Unfortunately for these nations, U. Interpretive Sign at the Stones River National Battlefield in Murfreesboro, Tennessee The Cherokee passed through Murfreesboro on the Trail of Tears in 1838, following what's now Old Nashville Pike, which lies beyond the rail fence. While most of the tribe relocated, certain Native Americans attempted to stay behind and become American citizens. For students, the question is to what extent these stereotypes still persist in their thinking. A case can be made that letting Georgia in effect nullify federal law strengthed the South's position on state's rights. Severe as is the lesson to the Indians, it was rendered necessary by their unprovoked aggressions, and it is to be hoped that its impression will be permanent and salutary. The Seminoles, however, held their ground and remained in the South.