India is one of the 17 mega biodiverse regions of the world. We believe strongly that we can and must do things differently. This led to a programme named Joint Forest Management, which proposed that specific villages in association with the forest department will manage specific forest blocks. Bamboo-based textiles and value added forest products industries are also being encouraged by the local officials. Around 80% of rural people and 48% of urban people use fuel-wood.
The role of forests in the national economy and in ecology was further emphasized in the 1988 National Forest Policy, which focused on ensuring environmental stability, restoring the ecological balance, and preserving the remaining forests. By 1992, seventeen states of India participated in Joint Forest Management, bringing about 2 million hectares of forests under protection. Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. An Act to accommodate the protection of forests and for matters associated therewith or ancillary or accidental thereto. Section 2 of the Act provides that the State Government shall not make amendments except with the prior approval of the Central Government or any order directing thereon: i That any reserved forest or any portion thereof, shall cease to be reserved. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations.
In the 1970s, India declared its long-term strategy for forestry development to compose of three major objectives: to reduce and ; to supply the growing needs of the domestic wood products industries; and to supply the needs of the rural population for , , small timber, and miscellaneous. Be it enacted by Parliament in the Thirty-first Year of the Republic of India as follows:- 1. Any comparison of forest coverage number of a year before 1987 for India, to current forest coverage in India, is thus meaningless; it is just bureaucratic record keeping, with no relation to reality or meaningful comparison. Prior to the 1980s, India deployed a bureaucratic method to estimate forest coverage. Be it established by Parliament in the Thirty-first Year of the Republic of India as takes after:- 1.
In 2002, forestry industry contributed 1. India thereafter switched to digital image and advanced satellites with 23 metres resolution and software processing of images to get more refined data on forest quantity and forest quality. A land was notified as covered under Indian Forest Act, and then officials deemed this land area as recorded forest even if it was devoid of vegetation. The Central Government may constitute a Committee consisting of such number of persons as it may deem fit to advise that Government with regard to — i The grant of approval under Section 2; and ii Any other matter connected with the conservation of forest which may be referred to it by the Central Government. Of the control over Forests and Lands not being the Property of Government Section 35. No such notification shall be made unless the nature and extent of the rights of Government and of private persons in or over the forestland or wasteland comprised therein have been inquired into and recorded at a survey or settlement, or in such other manner as the State Government thinks sufficient.
Interestingly, over the years, many states have exempted transit and felling for various species of bamboo giving partial relief to farmers. In the former, all local rights were abolished while in the latter some existing rights were accepted as a privilege offered by the British government to the local people which can be taken away if necessary. Section 3 of the Act deals with constitution of Advisory Committee. It has traditionally been used by people and farmers living in and around forests for housing needs, food security and handicrafts, among other things. Offences by the Authorities and Government Departments.
The act places restrictions on the power of the State Government concerning preservation of forests or use of forest land for non-forest purposes. In 2001, for example, an attempt to smuggle some 10,000 wild birds was discovered, and these birds were confiscated at the Mumbai international airport. These colonial laws brought the forests under the centralised sovereignty of the state. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. Appeals against orders made under section 2 of the forest conservation act on or after the commencement of the National Green Tribunal Act 2010 lie with the National Green Tribunal. Whoever contravenes or abets the contravention of any of the provisions of Section 2, shall be punishable with simple imprisonment for a period which may extend to fifteen days. The lost forest includes primary dense forests.
Instead of criminalising their skills at finding, recognising, attracting and capturing birds, India should offer them employment to re-apply their skills through scientific management, protection and wildlife preservation. Other objectives of the policy were meeting the need for fuelwood, fodder, and small timber for rural and tribal people while recognising the need to actively involve local people in the management of forest resources. Whoever contravenes or abets the contravention of any of the provisions of Section 2, shall be punishable with simple imprisonment for a period which may extend to fifteen days. The trappers, a detailed survey and investigation reveals are primarily tribal communities. Locally called Jhum, it supports about 450,000 families in Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, Assam and Meghalaya. The British state monopoly over Indian forests was first asserted through the Indian Forest Act of 1865.
It was, therefore, thought that the entire control of forest areas should vest in the Central Government. The State Government may, for any, such purpose, construct as its own expense, in or up on any forest or wasteland, such work as it thinks fit. A protest that became Chipko movement followed. The Central government may constitute consisting of such number of persons as it may deem fit to advise that Government with regard to- i the grant of approval under section 2; and ii any other matter connected with the conservation of forests which may be referred to it by the Central Government. Forest Conservation Act, 1980 with Amendments Made in 1988 Forest Conservation Act, 1980 with Amendments Made in 1988 An Act to provide for the conservation of forests and for matters connected therewith or ancillary or incidental thereto.
It gives Central Government the power to constitute a committee of such number of person as it may deem fit to advise the Government with regard to- i the grant of approval for the purpose which is prohibited in section of this act; or ii any other matter connected with the conservation of forests which may be referred to it by the Central Government. Section 2 of the act is about the restriction on the State Government for dereservation of forests or use of forest land for non-forest purpose. In particular, the protection of the forests would be the responsibility of the people. India has a thriving non-wood forest products industry, which produces latex, gums, resins, essential oils, flavours, fragrances and aroma chemicals, sticks, , thatching materials and medicinal plants. What caused Chipko is now a subject of debate; some neopopulists theorise Chipko as an environmental movement and an attempt to save forests, while others suggest that Chipko movement had nothing to do with eco-conservation, but was driven primarily to demand equal rights to harvest forests by local communities.