Also, goals other than economic efficiency such as intergenerational and intragenerational equity and balanced regional development do influence public policies even in capitalist economies. The Central Government may constitute a committee to advise the government with regard to: i The grant of approval under Section 2 , and ii Any matter connected with the conservation of forests in the country. Pigou advocates State intervention in the form of a tax on the polluting units. Empower any person to enter, inspect, take samples and test. The user charge system will also signal the users about the costs of the services provided by the local bodies. Air Prevention and Control of Pollution Act, 1981: The Air Act was passed under Article 253 of the Constitution of India and in pursuance of decisions of Stockholm Conference.
Trade Effluent: Trade effluent includes any liquid gaseous or solid substance which is discharged from any premises used for carrying on any industry, operations or process or treatment and disposal system other than domestic sewage. But in the case at continuing contravention with an additional fine which may extend to Five Thousand Rupees for everyday during which such contravention continues after conviction of the first such contravention. Solid waste is routinely seen along India's streets and shopping plazas. Until such new machinery is established, the existing machinery will be used for implementation of the Act. However, it does not mean that the 1261 industries comply with the standards.
Civil liability refers to what is commonly known as tortious liability. In fact even the pollution charge systems in many European countries and in the United States are not designed in such a way that the charges reflect the marginal abatement costs of different pollutants. The eleventh schedule contains environmental Activities such as soil conservation, water management, social forestry and non-conventional energy, that panchayats can undertake. But this department is merely an administrative set up and lacks power to prosecute the defaulters. Plants can be required to provide the State with information on their pollution control technologies, and the State may acquire effluent samples, which are admissible in court.
The Tiwari Committee, 1980 The Government of India set up a Committee in January 1980, under the Chairmanship of Shri N. Therefore Government intervention to preserve scenic spots, wild life sanctuary and biodiversity is justified in the public interest. We present a summary of selected Supreme Court judgments below. It held that the financial incapacity of the tanners to set up primary effluent treatment plants was wholly irrelevant. Legislations Some important legislations relating to environmental protection enacted by the Parliament during this period were: The Factories Act, 1948 The Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 The River Boards Act, 1956 The Mines and Minerals Regulation and Development Act, 1957 The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958 The Atomic Energy Act, 1962 The Insecticides Act, 1968 The Factories Act, 1948 provides that the liquid effluents, gases and fumes generated during a manufActuring process should be treated before their final disposal to minimise the adverse effects.
Because of the problems inherent in the implementation of the Act, amendments were proposed for strengthening the working of the State Boards. Also, the poor do not have the resources to undertake pollution averting measures. It lays down standards for effluents entering the water bodies. Conservation of natural resources including forestry and wildlife. In both these laws, prevention of water pollution was only incidental to the principal objective of the enactment. Following this legislation, the Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Cess Act was enacted in 1977 and in order to increase the scope of this legislation the Act of 1974 was amended in 1978. We consider four policy periods: i pre-independence period to 1947, ii from independence to the Stockholm Conference, 1947 - 1972, iii from the Stockholm Conference to Bhopal disaster, 1972-1984, and iv Bhopal Tragedy to 1998.
Since 1991 India has adopted new economic policies to spur development. As in the case of the Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Act, 1974, the Central and State Governments can make rules. The Wildlife Protection Amendment Act, 2002: The Wildlife Protection Act 1972 was amended by the Parliament in 2002. When an offence has been committed by a company, and it is proved that the offence was committed with the consent or with the connivance of any director, manager, secretary or other officer of the company, such director, manager, secretary or other officers shall also be deemed to be guilty of that offence and shall be also liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly. Automobile: It means any vehicle powered either by internal combustion engine or by any method of generating power to drive such vehicle by burning fuel. There is little emphasis on protection of plant genetic resources.
Grant of a special permit to hunt a wildlife for scientific research, scientific management and collection of specimens for zoological gardens, museums etc. The Environment Protection Act establishes the framework for studying, planning and implementing long-term requirements of environmental safety and laying down a system of speedy and adequate response to situations threatening the environment. It is a major source of , and produces smoke and numerous indoor air pollutants at concentrations 5 times higher than coal. The findings by the Indian conferees shocked even the most pro-development advocates in India. The was passed in 1981 to regulate air pollution and there have been some measurable improvements. But the firms have an incentive to operate their plants on their own only when the net operating cost, that is, the gross operating cost less the value of products recovered is negative; otherwise continuous or at least random monitoring with the expected penalty for non-compliance higher than the cost of compliance is necessary to ensure compliance. This is so because the present Pollution Control Boards seem to have adopted a soft line vis-a-vis the industry and prefer to be persuasive rather than punitive.
Dispute settlement by going to the courts is a cumbersome process and involves considerable delays. The Factories Act, 1948: The Factories Act of 1948 may be considered as an important milestone in environmental legislation. It also authorises the Central Government to stop or regulate the supply of electricity or water or any other service directly without obtaining a court order. Website: , What are the key policies relating to the environment in India? Any regulation, including imposition of standards on the polluting units, involves costs to society and these costs have to be weighed against the benefits arising from improvement in environmental quality. It has also been suggested that international events such as Stockholm provided the cover Indian officials needed to implement national environment policy without the vitriolic backlash normally expected from industry. During the 1950s and early 1960s marked the Constitution permitting the State to control water-related issues, several States had taken steps on water protection. Since then, for the first time in Indian history, major air pollutant concentrations have dropped in every 5-year period.
These revenues are used to implement the Water Act. Development Activities: All development authorities and local bodies while planning development activity or carrying out functions relating to town and country planning shall take into consideration all aspects of noise pollution as a parameter of quality of life to avoid noise menance and to achieve the objective of maintaining the ambient air quality standards in respect of noise. E published in the Gazette No. A satellite picture, taken in 2004, shows thick haze and smoke along the Ganges Basin in northern India. Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 was enacted with the objectives to provide for damages to victims of an accident which occurs as a result of handling any hazardous substance. Some of the main responsibilities of the Central Board, pursuant to promoting cleanliness and pollution abatement of streams and wells, include: coordinating Activities of State Boards and resolving disputes among them; providing technical assistance; conducting investigations; opening laboratories for analysis of samples; establishing fees for different types of sample testing; researching issues and problems; training personnel; conducting media and public awareness campaigns; collecting and disseminating data on water pollution; and working with State Boards to set standards by stream or well.