Writers of realism attempted to depict life in an objective manner and created stories that often focused on the details of everyday life. Edith Wharton's novels concentrate on upper-class women confined by the expectations imposed on them by a materialistic and acquisitive society. Freed from commercial limitations, playwrights experimented with dramatic forms and methods of production, and in time producers, actors, and dramatists appeared who had been trained in college classrooms and playhouses. So the latest works we can reasonably include have to have been published in 1991 or before. The change was not only in form, but also content. And the language is nothing short of astonishing. A female graduate student's jettisoned artificial leg becomes symbolic for her own loss of innocence and hope in Good Country People 1955 , a family on a mundane road trip is brutalized by bandits in A Good Man Is Hard to Find 1953 , and a mentally disabled young woman is left sleeping in a diner by her new husband in The Life You Save May Be Your Own 1953.
Millay revitalized the traditional sonnet by removing the female muse as subject and replacing her with a male beloved who becomes the focus of sensual love. Rainer Maria Rilke, the Prague-born poet, arrived in 1902 to write an article about Rodin, but ended up spending much of the decade. Modern poets have built upon and reacted to the profound legacy of Romanticism both British and American —its theories of the imagination, its conception of the poet's role in art and society, its complicated struggle with the question of how mind, world and language interact, and its exploration of the status of art, especially textual art, in the world. Using quotation and endnotes as a poetic technique, Moore successfully engages the readers in the text, casting them as cocreators of the poem. She later married Francis J. Unlike English romanticism, American romanticism had a strong and sometimes morbid interest in history.
First of all, this luscious cover, right? Other playwrights, such as Shirley Graham, Hallie Flanagan, and Margaret Ellen Clifford, used the stage as a forum for issues such as racism and the plight of workers during the Great Depression. Not every work will do all three, but the final list should be sufficiently multi-purpose to speak to these groups. I feel that Frost wrote this poem to express the feelings he could not outwardly state to those around him. I'm not saying he's not a great writer, but I've never even heard of him. Introduced as a romantic young girl repressed by prevalent racism, sexism, and poverty, Janie grows into a woman with a greater understanding of the complexities of self-definition.
In a time of profound social and cultural change, the increasingly mechanized urban environment left many feeling anxious. . It's an incredibly powerful story of awakening, written in such an elegant, subtle, way. Women of color join the chorus, making American stories more vigorous, complex, and inventive. However, one can say with assurance that women in the late twentieth century occupy literary spaces not open to women at the beginning of the century.
She was also an advocate of women's rights and was a member of the American Woman Suffrage Association. Unfortunately the cares and responsibilities of this world were calling to the sleigh driver forward, and ultimately Frost himself could not escape the Earth's icy fate. I'm telling you, it will make you think profound thoughts. Two years later, he was doing well enough to move to the Place des Vosges. This was a counterculture and youth culture movement beginning in the 1950s.
The Fiction of Modernism Women who wrote modernist prose experimented with language as much as their sisters who wrote poetry. Nevertheless, as this myth of familial perfection was being constructed, it was simultaneously being destroyed by women writers who resisted the lie of domesticity and the figurehead of the perfect housewife that stood in the center of that lie. The great nineteenth-century American poet, author of Leaves of Grass. Nadine Gordimer's ground-breaking novel won the Booker in 1974, and she herself is a Nobel laureate, but her work still seems under-the-radar somehow. Visit Ralph Waldo Emerson 1803-1882 An ordained minister, Boston-born Emerson was a philosopher, essayist and poet whose insightful prose explored the mind of man and his relationship with nature. Noted authors include Flaubert and Tolstoy. She wrote about what she knew, and so is certainly about money and class, but it's also a comedy about unconventional women and eccentric families.
Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg were well known beat poets. Walter Benjamin, the brilliant Marxist literary critic, philosopher, and peerlessly perceptive writer about Paris, was another. Maxine Hong Kingston's The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood amongst Ghosts 1976 is at once an autobiography, a retelling of Chinese myths, and a fictionalized account of Kingston's family history. Chapters: From Slavery to Freedom; Renaissance; Voices of the People; Say It Loud; Choice of Weapons. She denied that she had African heritage, claiming only Native American and Mexican ancestry, but she's usually included as an African American, probably born a slave in Texas.
Lillian Hellman's tough, lively, and ironic writing forced the social and psychological concerns of women to the American stage with such plays as The Children's Hour produced in 1934 , the story of a lesbian schoolteacher in love with her colleague and best friend, and The Little Foxes produced in 1939 , a tale of a woman who craves both power and money, both of which helped redefine the direction of modern theater. Mary Antin, a Jewish immigrant from Czarist Russia, introduced an important addition to American ethnic minority women's fiction: the assimilation story. François Mauriac, a committed Catholic all his life, came to fame in the 1920s with his relentlessly tense psychological novels such as The Desert of Love and Thérèse Desqueyroux about repressive bourgeois society in his native Southwest region. Wilkins Freeman's A New England Nun and Other Stories 1891 capture the New England landscape in exquisite detail, rendering a world of stoic women who live in a chosen state of often blissful isolation. African-American writers reactivated the painful ghost of slavery in order to understand the contemporary configuration of black American life. Ellen Glasgow's novels, such as Virginia 1912 and Barren Ground 1925 , capture the South on the cusp of change from a rural, agriculturally based society to a modern, mechanized one.
In the early years of the 20th century, Americans traveling in Europe encountered a vital, flourishing theatre; returning home, some of them became active in founding the movement throughout the country. Unruly Tongue: Identity and Voice in American Women's Writing, 1850—1930. Toni Morrison, author, teacher, and critic, saw her first novel, The Bluest Eye, published in 1970. Many women, in contrast, faced changes in the world with enthusiasm. In 1963, Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique exploded the myth of the contented suburban housewife. Though lacking in formal education, Bradford possessed native literary ability.
Civil Rights leader and journalist Mary Church Terrell wrote essays and articles in her long career. Some of them have been given below: 1900s - Theodhore Dreiser's Sister Carrie is considered among the significant titles of Naturalist Movement. As you might imagine, there are all sorts of problems with any such list: what does important mean? Women's writing reflected these expansions, and writers captured these changes through challenging narratives and the use of inventive language. Generally acknowledged as Hurston's best novel, Their Eyes Were Watching God 1937 is the story of Janie Crawford, her three tumultuous marriages, and most important, the discovery of Janie's own voice. Modernist fiction freed the female character from operating only in this domestic sphere. But is not to be missed.